RAM (Random Access Memory)


  • RAM stands for Random Access Memory
  • Your computer RAM is essentially short term memory where data is stored as the processor needs it
  •  RAM can slow down your computer if there isn’t enough of it for the processor to perform the tasks you ask it to
  • If your processor wants to load more data than your computer RAM can handle, it has to keep going back to the hard drive or the Internet to obtain the information again.
  • The processor makes up a computer’s ability to think, much like the conscious parts of your brain. 


  • The most common RAM size you can find in everyday laptop PCs nowadays is 8GB
  • Some lower-end models come with 4GB and in some cases only 2GB
  • Higher-end mainstream laptop models oftentimes feature 12GB and 16GB
  • You can find high-performance gaming laptops and mobile workstations with 24 or even 32 Gigabytes, too


There are two types of computer RAM:
  • Static RAM
  • Dynamic RAM


  • Static RAM needs not to be refreshed continuously to retain a bit of information that is stored in it. It does not require any extra power to stop the leakage of power, so that makes it quicker than DRAM.
  • One SRAM memory cell is made from six CMOS transistors. But there is a drawback. SRAM requires much more chips for the same amount of memory as DRAM (since it uses six transistors). This feature makes the manufacturing cost much higher, and hence is used in high-speed cache memory.


  • SRAM has a lower access time, around ten nanoseconds
  • It is much faster than DRAM as the memory cells do not require to be continuously refreshed
  • However, it consumes more power since it uses a bi-stable latch circuit, and requires a regular power source
  • It is costly and exists on the processors between the processor and main memory
  • It is long-lasting


Dynamic RAM is made from one transistor and one capacitor. Many of these tiny cells combine to form a large memory chunk. Since a capacitor is used, it needs to be refreshed from time to time to maintain the charge. Capacitors leak, hence they need to be recharged as soon as they are read, they need to be written back.



  • DRAM has a much higher access time of around 50 nanoseconds
  • It is slower than SRAM because memory cells need to be continuously refreshed
  • It consumes less power because the information is stored in one capacitor
  • DRAM is less expensive than SRAM
  • One memory cell is made up of one transistor and one capacitor so it occupies less space on the same-sized chip, providing you with more memory than an SRAM of similar size.


Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory became the standard in PCs with the release of the Intel X99 chipset, Haswell-E processors, and 6th-generation Intel Core processors. DDR4 replaced DDR3, which was the standard until around 2014.



  • Like each iteration in RAM standards, DDR4 arose primarily to address faster processor speeds in computers
  •  DDR3 was around for so long that the speed jumps were larger than the previous bump in RAM
  • DDR4 memory speeds start at 2133 MHz, a 33 percent speed increase
  • The JDEC standards for DDR4 also specify up to the 3200 MHz speed, which is double the current DDR3 1600 MHz limit.


  • The power that computers consume is a major issue, particularly when looking at the mobile computer market
  • The less power that components consume, the longer a device can run on batteries
  • As with each generation of DDR memory, DDR4 reduced the amount of power required to operate
  • This time, the levels dropped from 1.5 volts to 1.2 volts
  • This difference may not seem like much, but it can make a big difference with laptop systems


  • DDR4 RAM, which is short for “double data rate fourth generation random access memory,” is the latest internal computing update engineered to boost performance
  • DDR4 technology has two predecessors, DDR3 and DDR2
  • DDR4 generates speeds between 2133 and 4266 MT/s (million transfers per second). Compare that to DDR3’s speeds from 800 to 2133 MT/s and DDR2’s speeds from 400 to 1066 MT/s, and it’s easy to see how far memory technology has come
  • DDR2 operated on 1.8 volts. DDR3 lowered that 1.5 Volts, and now, DDR4 operates on as few as 1.05 Volts.




DDR2 stands for Double Data Rate version 2.

Whereas DDR3 stands for Double Data Rate version 3.

The cost of DDR2 is less than DDR3.

While it’s cost is higher or more than DDR2.

Supply voltage for DDR2 is greater than DDR3 which is 1.8 volts.

While for DDR3, supply voltage is 1.5 volts.

DDR2 consumes more power.

While it consumes less power.

The speed of DDR2 is slow in comparison of DDR3.

While the speed of DDR3 is fast in comparison of DDr2.

In DDR2, there is no memory reset option.

While in DDR3, there is provided memory reset option.

Clock speed of DDR2 vary from 400 MHz to 800 MHz

Whereas the clock speed of DDr3 vary from 800 MHz to 1600 MHz.




The cost of DDR3 is less than DDR4.

While it’s cost is higher or more than DDR3.

DDR3 consumes less power than DDR2 but more than DDR4.

Whereas DDR4 consumes less power than DDR3.

The speed of DDR3 is slightly slow in comparison of DDR4.

While it’s speed is faster than DDR3.

DDR3 has a maximum of 16 GB memory.

While DDR4 has no maximum limit or capability.

The clock speed of DDR3 vary from 800 MHz to 2133 MHz.

While the minimum clock speed of DDR4 is 2133 MHz and it has no defined maximum clock speed.

DDR3 has lower latency than DDR4.

While DDR4 has slightly more latency than DDR3.

Transfer Rate is 800MT/s – 1866MT/s in DDR3.

Transfer Rate is 1866MT/s – 3200MT/s in DDR4.

Peak transfer rate is low in DDR3 as compare to DDR4.

Peak transfer rate is high in DDR4 as compare to DDR3.


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